Wild Camping - The Basics

Camping in an organised site is fine, but there's something about

unzipping your tent in the morning and looking out to find a

breathtaking lake surrounded by mountains of your very own. No noisy

neighbours, no officious campsite owners, no queue for the showers,

just you, your tent and the outdoors.

Camping away from an organised site is called wild camping

and while in essence it's very simple - find a suitable place and put

up your tent - it also brings responsibilities with it. Our latest

basics article tells you what you need to know to wild camp

comfortably, responsibly and legally.

What Kit Do I Need?

Virtually all wild camp sites are reached by walking, so while

there are no particular requirements in terms of kit capability beyond

what you'd need to camp at a site, bear in mind that you'll almost

certainly be carrying your home on your back.

That means that using a lightweight tent, sleeping bag and other

equipment is always going to be easier, though obviously if you can

carry it, you can camp with it. The same's true of food; keep it

light and you'll keep it enjoyable, though you can't beat a nice

bottle of red wine with the sun setting over the tops.

If you're planning a wild camp high in the mountains, bear in mind

that the weather could turn nasty even when it's relatively calm in

the valleys, so make sure your tent is suitable and your sleeping bag

is good enough for the expected temperatures.

You may also need to consider some form of water purification

system, unless you're planning to boil all the water you use, and a

travel towel for washing use. Finally, while there's no right answer,

a discrete coloured tent means you blend into the landscape rather

than sticking out like a sore thumb.

Choosing A Site

It's no secret that there are lots of well known popular wild

camping sites around; pitch up at Sprinkling Tarn, for example, and

there's a good chance you'll be sharing it with a few others. It

makes more sense to choose a less popular spot.

In pure camping terms - we'll get onto legalities later - all you

really need is access to a reliable water supply, unless you're

prepared to carry water in, and a patch of ground flat enough to

pitch your tent on.

Beyond that, if you're high up, some form of shelter from the wind

is a good call. Avoid passes and cols because they tend to funnel

wind and, if you can, pitch on a well-drained area that's slightly

higher than the surrounding ground to avoid getting bogged out if it


Finally, camping on the same spot for longer than a couple of

nights harms vegetation - check out organised sites for proof - so

move your tent.

Be Considerate

The key to wild camping is to make as little impact as possible

and leave minimal traces while you're there and after you


Keep numbers down and moderate noise as much as

possible. Make an effort not to damage vegetation and don't light

fires that could spread and cause a major conflagration at any

time of year. Don't burn dead wood either, it can be a habitat for


Remember that lakes and watercourses are habitats for birds and

animals, so try not to camp directly beside them. If you do disturb

wildlife, be prepared to move elsewhere.

Finally leave the site as you found it, so you should pack

out anything that you pack in. Don't be tempted to burn or bury

rubbish; bag it and take it with you.

Human Waste

Human waste disposal is a bit of a taboo subject, but if you're

wild camping, it's crucial that you dispose of your excrement

properly. There's an excellent guide at the Mountaineering Council of

Scotland web site www.mountaineering-scotland.org.uk

which is well worth a read.

In brief though, don't defecate within 30 metres of any running

water - when camping take water from above your site and wallk

downstream to defecate - and dispose of your excrement by

burying. Use a small trowel to dig a six-inch hole and bury

it. It'll decompose faster if you do this.

When it's impossible to dig a hole, choose a discrete place and

spread your excrement out well before covering it with soil,

vegetation or rocks; this will help it to decompose faster. Don't

cover it with a rock.

Toilet paper should ideally be burned carefully, but if

there's a risk of fire, consider carrying it out. Don't bury it

unless you have no other choice.

Female sanitary items like tampons should also be carried

out as they decompose slowly.

Always wash your hands, though don't use soap directly in running

water. One option is an alcohol-based cleaning gel.

The Law - Scotland

In Scotland there's now a statutory right to camp on access land

which comes with certain responsibilities. You can find full details

at www.outdooraccess-scotland.com

- much of it is common sense, like not camping in enclosed field

of crops or animals and keeping away from buildings, roads and

historic structures.

The Law - England And Wales

In England and Wales things are more complicated as there's no

general right to camp unless you obtain the landowner's permission.

In upland areas however, it's often tolerated and there are

established wild camping spots in areas like the Lake District.

Often your best bet is to check the park authority web site for the

area you're considering - see www.nationalparks.gov.uk.

The Dartmoor Park Authority, for example, has a wild camping page at


which positively encourages wild camping while giving you

information on where you can and cannot camp in the form of a



The Peak District Park Authority, on the other hand, specifically

points out that you shouldn't camp on open access land particularly

with the high fire risk in summer.

In the Lakes and Snowdonia, the practice is generally tolerated on

high ground and they're the two most obvious areas to wild camp for

this reason.

The bottom line is that you should check usual practice in the

area and, if necessary, ask the landowner / farmer for permission if

you're unsure.

Thousands have wild-camped successfully and without problems by

being discrete, following common sense guidelines like the ones above

and breaking camp early, but technically you don't have a right to

wild camp south of the Scottish border. If you do so and you're asked

to move on, then you must do so.

Common Sense

Follow the above guidelines and use some common sense and you can

wildcamp in most popular outdoor areas; a lot of it is down to

discretion and showing consideration for the environment and those

who own and work the land. It may sound cliched, but the rewards

really are worth it.